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Mara Viveros Vigoya

The Black Middle Class in Colombia: A Social Oxymoron?

by Mara Viveros Vigoya

Numerous studies have shown that the Colombian population of African origin has the lowest income level, the poorest quality of life, the highest rate of child labor, the lowest rate of social security affiliation, and the highest demographic vulnerability of any group in Colombia (Urrea et al., 2004). Moreover, the small number of black men and even smaller number of black women in senior positions in civil society, the State, and private companies...

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